Intractable Rare Dis Res. 2022;11(2):52-62. (DOI: 10.5582/irdr.2022.01025)
Association of human gut microbiota with rare diseases: A close peep through
Roy S, Nag S, Saini A, Choudhury L
The human body harbors approximately 1014 cells belonging to a diverse group of microorganisms. Bacteria outnumbers protozoa, fungi and viruses inhabiting our gastrointestinal tract (GIT), commonly referred to as the "human gut microbiome". Dysbiosis occurs when the balanced relationship between the host and the gut microbiota is disrupted, altering the usual microbial population there. This increases the susceptibility of the host to pathogens, and chances of its morbidity. It is due to the fact that the gut microbiome plays an important role in human health; it influences the progression of conditions varying from colorectal cancer to GIT disorders linked with the nervous system, autoimmunity, metabolism and inheritance. A rare disease is a lethal and persistent condition affecting 2-3 people per 5,000 populaces. This review article intends to discuss such rare neurological, autoimmune, cardio-metabolic and genetic disorders of man, focusing on the fundamental mechanism that links them with their gut microbiome. Ten rare diseases, including Pediatric Crohn's disease (PCD), Lichen planus (LP), Hypophosphatasia (HPP), Discitis, Cogan's syndrome, Chancroid disease, Sennetsu fever, Acute cholecystitis (AC), Grave’s disease (GD) and Tropical sprue (TS) stands to highlight as key examples, along with personalized therapeutics meant for them. This medicinal approach addresses the individual's genetic and genomic pathography, and tackles the illness with specific and effective treatments.