Intractable Rare Dis Res. 2019;8(2):113-119. (DOI: 10.5582/irdr.2019.01025)
A preliminary study on the mechanism of skeletal abnormalities in Turner syndrome using inducing pluripotent stem cells (iPS)-based disease models.
Cui XX, Cui YZ, Shi L, Luan J, Zhou XY, Han JX
Osteoporosis represent one of main characteristics of Turner syndrome (TS), a rare diseases caused by aberrant deletion of X chromosomes, however, the underlying pathological mechanism remains unknown yet. In this study, we used pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) derived from a Turner syndrome patient and a health control to induce functional osteoblasts and osteoclasts, in order to compare their difference in these two differentiation. We successfully produced functional osteoblasts and osteoclasts from iPSCs through embryoid bodies (EBs) and mesoderm stages, as demonstrated obvious mineralized nodules and multi-nuclear giant cells with positive tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase (TRAP) staining, and significant up-regulated differentiation marker genes. Interestingly, we found that there was no significant difference in phenotype and marker genes expression between osteoblasts from Turner syndrome and healthy control iPSCs. In contrast, Turner syndrome showed increased osteoclastogenesis compared to the healthy control indicating higher frequency of multi-nuclear TRAP staining cells and elevated osteoclast marker genes TRAP, MMP9, CA2, OSCAR. Therefore, our results suggest that the low bone density of Turner syndrome patients may be caused by aberrant osteoclast differentiation, and further investigation towards osteoclast function under Turner syndrome is deserved.