Intractable Rare Dis Res. 2019;8(1):52-55. (DOI: 10.5582/irdr.2018.01126)
Leber's hereditary optic neuropathy: Severe vascular pathology in a severe primary mutation.
Asanad S, Meer E, Tian JJ, Fantini M, Nassisi M, Sadun AA
The purpose of the present article was to evaluate the previously unreported vascular alterations in Leber's Hereditary Optic Neuropathy (LHON) 3460 mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) mutation. Among the three primary mtDNA mutations, namely 11778, 14484, and 3460, LHON 3460 is the most rare and historically recognized as having the poorest visual prognosis. Optical coherence tomography angiography (OCTA) is a novel imaging modaility providing high-resolution microcirculation maps and enhancing visualization of the optic disc and peripapillary capillary beds. We herein exploit the advantages of OCTA, for the first time, to assess the optic nerve head and peripapillary microvasculature changes in an affected patient and compare these vascular changes with an asymptomatic carrier for LHON 3460, serving as a control. Vascular changes in LHON 11778 and 14484 have classically shown microvasculature attenuation localized specifically to the temporal peripapillary quadrant. In the present case, however, OCTA in LHON 3460, the most severe of the three mutational subtypes, illustrated significant vascular attenuation involving the nasal peripapillary region in addition to the temporal peripapillary microvascular changes classically seen in LHON. Our findings suggest that vascular measures may serve useful for objectively assessing mitochondrial disease. Further OCTA studies involving the nasal peripapillary region may be warranted to further understand vascular pathogenesis in LHON.